GF Baking Help

Powerpoint Slideshow on GF Baking

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Gluten Free flours:

Rice Flour (white)

This flour is made from rice that has had the bran removed before grinding and is essentially a filler. It’s a relatively cheap hard flour and is good at holding thing up but not together, for this you need a binder/stabiliser like xanthan gum. If your baking is too soft and increasing the bake time doesn’t help then add more rice flour but you end up with a texture that screams ‘Gluten Free’

Rice Flour (Brown)

This is better for you as it uses the whole rice and provides better structure than white. Using 1/3 rice flour in Muffins makes them more sturdy.

Other Grains:


It has a good mild flavour and is a good colour, it is soft, but you don’t get that GF texture that rice flour gives you. As a sorghum muffin ages it doesn’t go stale (unless there’s too much corn starch added) but the flavour does change over a couple of days, so freeze your muffins to avoid the flavour evolving into a bitter one.

Buckwheat Flour:

Buckwheat flour can be quite bitter, but is ok in small doses, the odd pancake maybe made with ¼ buckwheat and ¾ all purpose flour. Too much buckwheat and the mix is gluey and hard to use.

Gram/Chickpea Flour:

Mostly used in Indian Cuisine, Leaves a distinctive ‘Bean’ after-taste.

Soy Flour:

A nutty and slightly bitter flour. (I personally wouldn’t use it)

 Other Baking Ingredients that are ground:

 Ground rice:

This is useful as a coarser filler than flour and works well in combination with ground almonds.

Ground Almonds / Almond Meal:

This gives the likes of bread some of the wheat type characteristics, like giving the bread bendability and also makes the bread chew like wheat bread.



Baking Ingredients and how they are utilised in the baking process!!

Flour is what you get when you take a seed and grind it up

Starch is the carbohydrate component.

These are long chains of sugars that humans can digest; cellulose on the other hand can only be digested by bacteria.

There are two sugar chains (polymers)

Amylopectin, and Amylose.

Amylose is the starch that causes bread to go stale.
When bread cools the starch becomes solid or semi-solid

Bread should be completely cooled before cutting. Amylose gets really solid and forms crystals with water in the centre, this causes bread to feel dry, and crumbly and fall apart when eaten, it also explains how you can refresh bread in the microwave. Heating vaporises the encapsulated water into steam and makes it soft again.

Not all starches are equal, they vary in their content of stale –inducing Amylose.

Wheat starch has up to 31%, (depending on variety)

Among the GF starches

Corn has 28%

Potato has 23%

Tapioca has the least at 17%.

Potato Starch retains the most moisture after baking compared to Corn or Tapioca, you need less potato starch and water and reduce xanthan by half otherwise you’re left with a soggy mess.

Corn Starch is cheap and available, it stales quickest and has no flavour quality.

Tapioca Starch best, it has the lowest % Amylose, and highest clarity of flavour.

Tapioca comes from cassava root, the starch is extracted and dropped onto a hot plate creating pearls. (These pearls are used in a type of milk pudding)

These are ground into a powder, since it’s not ground from a seed it’s a misnomer to call it a flour.


Substituting Flours and Starches.

Authors of coeliac cookbooks usually have their own mixtures of gluten free flour.

Depending of what you have in your available, you can substitute for a missing ingredient, but keep within the same group:

Group A – Corn flour (starch), potato starch, tapioca or arrowroot.

These provide smoothness to your mix.

Group B – Brown rice, Cornmeal (Polenta), Quinoa, Teff, Millet, Amaranth , Gram (Chickpea, Dahl, Garbanzo)

These all provide protein to your mix.

Group C – Potato starch and Quinoa.

Add moisture to baked goods.

The flours in the mix, need some form of extender to replace the gluten. This holds the baked goods together and gives the baked goods pliability. You can choose from: Xanthan or Guar Gum.

Gluten free flours do not produce the same flavour and texture as wheat flour in baked goods but that doesn’t mean you won’t enjoy them!



Tired of the confusion between British and American weights and measures? Ideally, when working with a British or European recipe to achieve accuracy and success, one should have access to a scale. However, if that is not possible, the following information will help. It is important that you follow only one set of instructions for weight i.e American or British. This is very important for the success of your recipe. All measurements are approximate.




British American Fluid Ounces Metric
1/4 tsp 1/4 tsp    1.25 ml
1 tsp   1 tsp   5 ml
1 tblsp   1 tblsp
3 tblsp   1/4 cup 2 ozs  60 ml
1/4 pint   2/3 cup  5 ozs 150 ml
1/3 pint    3/4 cup 7 ozs 200 ml
1/2 pint    1 1/3 cups 10 ozs 300 ml
3/4 pint    2 cups 15 ozs 450 ml
1 pint   2 1/2 cups 20 ozs  600 ml


(FLOUR – Unsifted)


British American Metric
1/2 oz  2 tblsp 15 grams
I oz  3 tblsps + I tsp  30 grams
2 oz  1/3 cup + 1 tblsp  56 grams
3 oz  1/2 cup + 2 tblsp  85 grams
4 oz   3/4 cup + 1 tblsp + 1 tsp 115 grams
5 oz  1 cup + 2 tblsp  145 grams
6OZ  1 1/3 cups 175 grams
7 ozs   1 1/2 cups 200 grams
8 ozs   1 3/4 cups 225 grams
9 ozs   2 cups + 1 tsp 255 grams
10 ozs   2 1/3 cups + 2 tsp 285 grams
11 ozs  2 1/2 cups  315 grams
12 ozs  2 1/2 cups + 3 tblsp  340 grams
13 ozs   3 cups + 1 tblsp 370 grams
14 ozs  3 1/3 cups + 1 tblsp  395 grams
15 ozs   3 1/2 cups 425 grams
16 ozs (1 lb)   3 3/4 cups 450 grams
1 lb 4 ozs   4 1/2 cups 575 grams
llb 8 ozs  5 1/2 cups  675 grams
llb 12 ozs   6 1/2 cups 800 grams
2 Ibs   7 1/2 cups 900 grams
21bs 4 ozs  8 1/2 cups  1 kg


(linear to metric)


Measurement Multiply by To find
Inches   Length x 2.5 Centimeters
Millimeters  Length x 0.04  Inches
Centimeters  Length x 0.4  Inches




Description Centigrade Fahrenheit Gas Regulo
Very cool    110 225 1/4
Very cool    120 250 1/2
Cool    140 275 1
Cool    150 300 2
Warm   160  325 3
Moderate    180 350 4
Medium hot   190 375 5
Quite hot    200 400 6
Hot    220 435 7
Very hot   230 450  8
Very hot   240 475  9


(Ingredient names / Products)


British American
Cornflour  Cornstarch
Superfine sugar  Dominos “bar” sugar
Icing sugar  Confectionery sugar
Sultanas  Dark or golden raisins
Smarties  M & M’s
Golden syrup  Corn syrup
Treacle  Molasses
Sugarpaste  Rolled fondant
Nozzle  Decorating tip
Cake drum  Cake board (1/2″ thick covered in silver or gold)
Polystyrene  Styrofoam
Butchers film  Non-stick parchment (for candy)
Vegetable fat/Trex  Vegetable shortening
Chocolate leather  Plastic or modelling chocolate
Cling film  Plastic wrap
Cocktail stick  Tooth pick
Maderia cake  Pound cake
Mars bars  Milky Way
Parsley cutter  Herb cutter
Pasta wheel  Pasta cutter
Rice paper  Wafer paper
Tins  Pans


Starch Thickeners





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