Powerpoint Slideshow on GF Baking
Gluten Free flours:
Rice Flour (white)
This flour is made from rice that has had the bran removed before grinding and is essentially a filler. It’s a relatively cheap hard flour and is good at holding thing up but not together, for this you need a binder/stabiliser like xanthan gum. If your baking is too soft and increasing the bake time doesn’t help then add more rice flour but you end up with a texture that screams ‘Gluten Free’
Rice Flour (Brown)
This is better for you as it uses the whole rice and provides better structure than white. Using 1/3 rice flour in Muffins makes them more sturdy.
It has a good mild flavour and is a good colour, it is soft, but you don’t get that GF texture that rice flour gives you. As a sorghum muffin ages it doesn’t go stale (unless there’s too much corn starch added) but the flavour does change over a couple of days, so freeze your muffins to avoid the flavour evolving into a bitter one.
Buckwheat flour can be quite bitter, but is ok in small doses, the odd pancake maybe made with ¼ buckwheat and ¾ all purpose flour. Too much buckwheat and the mix is gluey and hard to use.
Mostly used in Indian Cuisine, Leaves a distinctive ‘Bean’ after-taste.
A nutty and slightly bitter flour. (I personally wouldn’t use it)
Other Baking Ingredients that are ground:
This is useful as a coarser filler than flour and works well in combination with ground almonds.
Ground Almonds / Almond Meal:
This gives the likes of bread some of the wheat type characteristics, like giving the bread bendability and also makes the bread chew like wheat bread.
Baking Ingredients and how they are utilised in the baking process!!
Flour is what you get when you take a seed and grind it up
Starch is the carbohydrate component.
These are long chains of sugars that humans can digest; cellulose on the other hand can only be digested by bacteria.
There are two sugar chains (polymers)
Amylopectin, and Amylose.
Amylose is the starch that causes bread to go stale.
When bread cools the starch becomes solid or semi-solid
Bread should be completely cooled before cutting. Amylose gets really solid and forms crystals with water in the centre, this causes bread to feel dry, and crumbly and fall apart when eaten, it also explains how you can refresh bread in the microwave. Heating vaporises the encapsulated water into steam and makes it soft again.
Not all starches are equal, they vary in their content of stale –inducing Amylose.
Wheat starch has up to 31%, (depending on variety)
Among the GF starches
Corn has 28%
Potato has 23%
Tapioca has the least at 17%.
Potato Starch retains the most moisture after baking compared to Corn or Tapioca, you need less potato starch and water and reduce xanthan by half otherwise you’re left with a soggy mess.
Corn Starch is cheap and available, it stales quickest and has no flavour quality.
Tapioca Starch best, it has the lowest % Amylose, and highest clarity of flavour.
Tapioca comes from cassava root, the starch is extracted and dropped onto a hot plate creating pearls. (These pearls are used in a type of milk pudding)
These are ground into a powder, since it’s not ground from a seed it’s a misnomer to call it a flour.
Substituting Flours and Starches.
Authors of coeliac cookbooks usually have their own mixtures of gluten free flour.
Depending of what you have in your available, you can substitute for a missing ingredient, but keep within the same group:
Group A – Corn flour (starch), potato starch, tapioca or arrowroot.
These provide smoothness to your mix.
Group B – Brown rice, Cornmeal (Polenta), Quinoa, Teff, Millet, Amaranth , Gram (Chickpea, Dahl, Garbanzo)
These all provide protein to your mix.
Group C – Potato starch and Quinoa.
Add moisture to baked goods.
The flours in the mix, need some form of extender to replace the gluten. This holds the baked goods together and gives the baked goods pliability. You can choose from: Xanthan or Guar Gum.
Gluten free flours do not produce the same flavour and texture as wheat flour in baked goods but that doesn’t mean you won’t enjoy them!
WEIGHTS & MEASURES
Tired of the confusion between British and American weights and measures? Ideally, when working with a British or European recipe to achieve accuracy and success, one should have access to a scale. However, if that is not possible, the following information will help. It is important that you follow only one set of instructions for weight i.e American or British. This is very important for the success of your recipe. All measurements are approximate.
|1/4 tsp||1/4 tsp||1.25 ml|
|1 tsp||1 tsp||5 ml|
|1 tblsp||1 tblsp||15.ml|
|3 tblsp||1/4 cup||2 ozs||60 ml|
|1/4 pint||2/3 cup||5 ozs||150 ml|
|1/3 pint||3/4 cup||7 ozs||200 ml|
|1/2 pint||1 1/3 cups||10 ozs||300 ml|
|3/4 pint||2 cups||15 ozs||450 ml|
|1 pint||2 1/2 cups||20 ozs||600 ml|
DRY MEASUREMENTS (FLOUR – Unsifted)
|1/2 oz||2 tblsp||15 grams|
|I oz||3 tblsps + I tsp||30 grams|
|2 oz||1/3 cup + 1 tblsp||56 grams|
|3 oz||1/2 cup + 2 tblsp||85 grams|
|4 oz||3/4 cup + 1 tblsp + 1 tsp||115 grams|
|5 oz||1 cup + 2 tblsp||145 grams|
|6OZ||1 1/3 cups||175 grams|
|7 ozs||1 1/2 cups||200 grams|
|8 ozs||1 3/4 cups||225 grams|
|9 ozs||2 cups + 1 tsp||255 grams|
|10 ozs||2 1/3 cups + 2 tsp||285 grams|
|11 ozs||2 1/2 cups||315 grams|
|12 ozs||2 1/2 cups + 3 tblsp||340 grams|
|13 ozs||3 cups + 1 tblsp||370 grams|
|14 ozs||3 1/3 cups + 1 tblsp||395 grams|
|15 ozs||3 1/2 cups||425 grams|
|16 ozs (1 lb)||3 3/4 cups||450 grams|
|1 lb 4 ozs||4 1/2 cups||575 grams|
|llb 8 ozs||5 1/2 cups||675 grams|
|llb 12 ozs||6 1/2 cups||800 grams|
|2 Ibs||7 1/2 cups||900 grams|
|21bs 4 ozs||8 1/2 cups||1 kg|
MEASUREMENTS (linear to metric)
|Measurement||Multiply by||To find|
|Inches||Length x 2.5||Centimeters|
|Millimeters||Length x 0.04||Inches|
|Centimeters||Length x 0.4||Inches|
OURS AND YOURS(Ingredient names / Products)
|Superfine sugar||Dominos “bar” sugar|
|Icing sugar||Confectionery sugar|
|Sultanas||Dark or golden raisins|
|Smarties||M & M’s|
|Golden syrup||Corn syrup|
|Cake drum||Cake board (1/2″ thick covered in silver or gold)|
|Butchers film||Non-stick parchment (for candy)|
|Vegetable fat/Trex||Vegetable shortening|
|Chocolate leather||Plastic or modelling chocolate|
|Cling film||Plastic wrap|
|Cocktail stick||Tooth pick|
|Maderia cake||Pound cake|
|Mars bars||Milky Way|
|Parsley cutter||Herb cutter|
|Pasta wheel||Pasta cutter|
|Rice paper||Wafer paper|